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Sample Piano Finders Report

for Yamaha C3, 6'1" Grand for sale as new on dealer's floor in 1999
Piano Finders R1.11 Report




#R1.11 Piano Finders Standard (PFS)Test Results # 1993
on Scale of All Pianos



Piano Brand:  Yamaha   Serial #:  Withheld   Year Mfc'd: 1996
Piano Model: C3 Grand Length (Feet/Inches) 6'1" Upright Height (Inches)      
Case Description: (Color) Ebony (Sheen) High Polish (Veneer) n/a (Style) Plain
Keytop material Plastic   Does it have a matching bench? Yes Describe bench: Duet

PFS Test Performed by:  Karen E. Lile  based on
Yes    R1.0 Values Report completed by Karen E. Lile on date:   9/16/99
   R1.2 Inspection & Evaluation Report completed by Kendall R. Bean on date:   7/19/99
   R1.13 Piano Upgrade Recommendations Report completed by Kendall R. Bean on date: 7/19/99

Skill Level of Person Performing R1.2 & R1.3 or other Reports:
General Experience:    Highest Level    Piano Technology Experience:  Highest Level   
Furniture Experience:  Highest Level    Pianist's  Experience:  Highest Level   
Certification for Karen E. Lile expires on  9/2003
Certification for Kendall R. Bean expires on  9/2003


Piano Finders Standard Test Results

On Scale of All Pianos

Includes pianos from 36” spinets to

9’6” concert grands

(PFS Scale effective date 9-17-99)








PFSS Test Results – On Scale of All Pianos











































Piano Finders Standard Test Results

On Scale of  5'7" to 6'4" Grands  
(PFS Scale effective date 9-17-99)








PFSS Test Results

On Scale of 5'7" to 6'4" Grands *


Z =





80 %



100 %


100 %



100 %


80 %



62.5 %


100 %



60 %


100 %



80 %


100 %



90 %








*Formula for converting ratings on Scale of All pianos to this scale:  where x = % on this scale and y = % on Scale of All Pianos, z  equals maximum % on scale of All pianos that can be achieved at 100% on scale of this piano.

x = (y times 100) divided by z



Details of PFS Test Results are recorded as follows:


Quality of General Construction


1.     Yes :   Has overstrung bass

2.     Yes :   Has 88 Keys; 2 pedals;  width keyboard is 3'11" to 4'1" wide; spacing between naturals is 1/32" to 1/16"

3.     Yes :   Has solid spruce soundboard and a continuous rim, and working sostenuto pedal in middle (3 pedals)

4.      Yes :   Has duplex scale; aliquot scale; capo 'd astro bar in treble

5.      Yes :   Pinblock is mated to the stretcher, ribs notched into rim; has special tone enhancing features such as: arched (bell shaped) plate, wet or green sand cast; tension resonator;  and/or hard rock maple used for rim, other high quality materials known for their musicality and durability in the construction of the piano.


The quality of design, materials and workmanship for the piano when it was built is equal to or greater than that which is typical of industry standards for new pianos today, for the following size categories:


6.        Yes :   36” to 45” upright or 4’5” to 5’ grands

7.        Yes :   46” to 60” upright or 5’1” to 5’6” grands

8.        Yes :   5’7” to 6’4” grands

9.        No :    6’5 to 7’4” grands

10.     No :   7’5” to 9’6” grands


This Piano is at 80 % of  QUALITY
on the PFS on the Scale of All Pianos




The following parts:  Soundboard, pinblock, strings, tuning pins, dampers, cabinet finish, hammers, shanks, flanges, whippens, backchecks, keyframe felts, key bushings and other miscellaneous action felts would not need to be replaced before (see * ):


1.        Yes :   0-5 years

2.        Yes :   6-10 years

3.        Yes :   11-20 years

4.        Yes :   21-30 years

5.        Yes :   31-40 years

The following parts that affect the cosmetic appearance of the piano: case parts, veneer, cabinet finish, pedals and other hardware would not need to be replaced before (see * ):

6.        Yes :   0-5 years

7.        Yes :   6-10 years

8.        Yes :   11-20 years

9.        Yes :   21-30 years

10.    Yes :   31-40 years

* For the purpose of  the PFS, we assume that the piano will receive 1 hour of standard use per day in a humidity-controlled environment.  We have also based our opinion on service record for similarly constructed and designed pianos. New parts are not always more durable than original parts because they may not be as well made, seasoned, etc. Because of the uncertainty in predicting the future, this particular piano may end up being more or less durable than predicted in the rating.



This Piano is at 100 % of  DURABILITY
on the PFS on the Scale of All Pianos




1.     Yes :   All keys make a tone when depressed.

2.     No :   Pitch at A440.  Tuning:  Equal Temperment or as close as possible.  (Includes all of the following:)

·         No intervals are pure except octaves. 

·         Octaves may be stretched slightly, but no more than about 1/2 beat/second

·         5ths, minor 3rds and minor 6ths are narrower than perfect.

·         Beat speed increases gradually on all imperfect intervals as you travel up the scale.

3.     Yes :   Sound is free of all squeaks, clicks, rattles, buzzes, false beats and other undesirable and extraneous noises.

4.     No :   Has superior sustain time. 

5.     No :   Sound is rich in harmonic content, has proper depth and brightness.  Does not have twanginess, tinniness or other undesirable qualities.  Dynamic Range:  capable of delivering the full spectrum of dynamics from ppp (pianississimo) to fff  (fortississimo) without excessive effort, distortion or breaking up

Has a string length and soundboard size equivalent to or greater than a typical:


6.        Yes :   36” to 45” upright or 4’5” to 5’ grands

7.        Yes :   46” to 60” upright or 5’1” to 5’6” grands

8.        Yes :   5’7” to 6’4” grands

9.        No :   6’5 to 7’4” grands

10.     No :   7’5” to 9’6” grands



This Piano is at 50 % of  TONE
on the PFS on the Scale of 5’10” to 6’ Grand Pianos




1.        Yes :   All keys perform the function of lifting the hammer when depressed.  Pedal Height 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" on all pedals. All pedals rest at uniform height.

2.        Yes :   No cracks, chips, sharp edges or other damage on any key.

3.        Yes :   Action is not a drop-lever style found on most spinets.

4.        No :   Keys level, or crowned no more than 1/16" towards center of keyboard; keys consistently dipped 13/32" ( + 1/64"); Sharp Height:  15/32" ( + 1/32") above surface of white keys and uniform note to note.

5.        No :   Keybushings properly eased, not too tight or too loose.

6.        No :   Ivory keytops or keytops with similar properties.

7.        Yes :   Grand Piano action with repetition lever and spring.

8.        No :   Grand Action Properly Regulated (includes ALL of  the following)

·         Let-off: 1/16" to 1/32" from string and consistent throughout

·         Drop: 1/16" to 1/8" below point of let-off and consistent throughout

·         Checking:  5/8" to 1/2" from string and consistent throughout  In no case, however should the hammer be allowed in any way to brush against the backcheck on the upstroke.

·         Aftertouch:  1/16" to 1/8" or about the thickness of a nickel

·         Repetition spring tension:  must neither "jump" nor be too slow to rise, but may be anywhere from "slow" and steady to "brisk" and steady, as long as it is uniform from note to note.  Pianist must not feel a "kick" in key when key is released.

·         Strike distance or hammer height:  Nominally from 1 7/8" to 1 5/8" from string and consistent throughout.  In all cases the key dip shall always be set properly first, and then the strike distance adjusted to accommodate the key dip.

·         Damper Timing:  Damper should start to rise when hammer is 1/3 to 1/2 of the way to the string, and no later. 

·         Hammer shanks traveled so they don’t hit each other when lifted several at the same time.

·         Action centers properly pinned: 3 to 5 grams on hammer and whippen flanges, or capable of delivering results of 4 to 6 swings on hammer swing test.

9.        Yes :   Key length is typical of 6’ or larger grands.

10.     Yes :   Grand Action Touchweight is 50 grams ( + 5 gram variance) uniform from note to note. May taper from bass to treble.



This Piano is at 60 % of  TOUCH
on the PFS on the Scale of 5’10” to 6’ Grand Pianos





1.      Yes :   External wood surfaces of cabinet are protected with any of the following agents: nitrocellulose lacquer, polyester, or other equivalent type of finish.

2.      Yes :   Hardware shall intact and free from the following:  stripped, wrong size, or type or missing screws; non-standard, wrong size, non-matching or inappropriate replacement parts; broken, damaged or  non-working locks, non-aligned locks

3.      Yes :   Hardware shall be in good condition and free from the following:  tarnishing, worn-through plating or material; substandard quality replating, cleaning, polishing or recoating.

4.      Yes :   Case parts shall be intact on piano and free from the following:  missing, damaged or broken parts; non-standard, wrong size or style, non-matching or inappropriate replacement parts; customized, modernized or adapted case parts; appliqué', antiquing, or any other post-factory reliefs, carvings, decorations or additions.

5.      No :   Case parts shall be in good condition, properly installed on piano and free from the following:  stripped or missing screws, stripped screw holes in non-hardware joints; broken or loose leg locks; frozen, sticking or rubbing parts (such as fallboard or music desk); missing or damaged knobs, rubber buttons; broken glue joints; wobbly legs; loose broken or stripped pedal lyre; warped lid or other parts.

6.      No :   Finish is free from the following:  dirt, dust, smoke, nicotine, or any other  residue; crazing, cracking, sun bleaching, fading; fisheye peeling or other adhesion problems; chipping, blushing, scratches, water spots, swirl marks, sinking into pores, nicks, gouges, burns, dings, or other blemishes; excessive touchup of finish defects or rubthroughs.

7.      Yes :   Finish applied evenly and uniformly, and hand-rubbed or satinized if nitrocellulose lacquer.  If polyester, shall be polished to a high gloss.

8.      Yes :   Finish is closed pored;  finish surfaces are smooth and flat without obvious ripples or depressions when viewed under average household lighting.

9.      Yes :   If ebony, hue and shade shall be uniform. If wood grain:  wood grain veneers shall be matching, stained to a uniform hue & shade and appropriate for type of veneer. 

10.     Yes :   If ebony, wood grain patterns shall not be seen through finish.  If wood grain:  wood grain patterns shall be readily apparent through clear finish. 



This Piano is at 80 % of  APPEARANCE
on the PFS on the Scale of 5’10” to 6’ Grand Pianos





1.        Yes :   Parts readily available for repairs and rebuilding

2.        Yes :   Cabinet can be refinished with conventional methods of refinishing

3.        Yes :   Only two cheekblock screws to remove for servicing action

4.        Yes :   Checkblock screws are thumb screws, not requiring a screwdriver to remove.

5.        Yes :   Action is easy to remove from piano for servicing.

6.        Yes :   Easy to get a tuning wrench over tuning pins, plate and other case parts are not in the way.

7.        Yes :   Piano has special design features that make it easier to service (including any of the following):Accujust hitch pins; pinblock plate and strings removable as a unit; individual hammer rest felt blocks.

8.        No :   Lid opens easily with one hand for tuning or servicing.

9.        Yes :   For uprights: music desk and front panel assembly can be easily removed; for grands: music desk can be removed easily and is not built into lid.

10.     Yes :   For uprights, legs are stable and do not easily break off if piano is moved across room;  for grands: legs have knock-of legs with locks instead of screws. This makes it easier to remove legs for moving.


This Piano is at 90 % of  SERVICEABLITY
on the PFS on the Scale of 5’10” to 6’ Grand Pianos



Piano Technician's Opinions


Yes :   Piano does not need upgrades in excess of $500 in order to meet its own potential.


Yes :   Piano's condition can be upgraded to meet the following PFSS:

        No :   On Scale of All Pianos

        Yes :   On Scale of piano's own potential.


Yes :   Piano's condition can be improved to meet 100% of the PFS Standard for 5'7" to 6'4" grands in the following categories:

        No :   Quality of General Construction

        No :   Durability

        Yes :   Tone 

        Yes :   Serviceability

        Yes :   Touch                                                              

        Yes :   Appearance


No :   Piano's potential value after upgrades is likely to be more than it's current value plus the cost of repairs.   For more detailed expert advice order the following reports:


R1.0 Piano Values Report: to determine market &  investment values.  Summarizes the R1.2 & R1.3 Reports and gives values before and after various levels of repairs.


R1.2 Piano Inspection and Evaluation Report to determine the extent of piano upgrade that would be necessary to bring piano up to the standard of it's own potential as well as less extensive upgrade options.


R1.3 Piano Upgrade Recommendation Report to determine the cost of repairs for each level of upgrade.  Recommendations are made as to which repairs will be most cost effective and will produce the best  results for  various customer's needs and values.








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